Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Effective Use of Color in William Gibsons Neuromancer :: Neuromancer Essays

Effective Use of Color in Neuromancer As I sit in my chair and type this essay, I am amazed to see myself staring into the computer next to me and wondering if William Gibson was indeed correct. The screen, which is a dark gray, has been put on "sleep mode" by Windows 98 but has not been powered off. It is not only the monitor that troubles me as I stare blankly into it, but rather, it is "the color of television, tuned to a dead channel." This is how Gibson touches the reader in Neuromancer. He uses images of colors with which the human eye is all too familiar, and, more specifically, he uses shades of these colors. One color, which particularly stands alone in Gibson's use and effectiveness, is gray. It represents so much in the novel and adds incredible dimensions beyond simple description. With the opening line, the coloring reveals the nature of his futuristic Earth. "The sky above the port was the color of television, tuned to a dead channel." In the modern world, there are not too many people who do not know this color. The "snow" effect has been commonly used to describe it, as well as static, haze, and a number of other terms, but the color remains the same. It is the color of frustration, hopelessness and non-clarity, much like Case's world. There is very little hope left in Case's life as Gibson opens the novel, and within fifteen words, the reader is well aware of this fact. Not only does the world continue a bleak existence, but so to do the main characters of the novel. Molly, for example, is a lost assassin. She is not physically lost but rather spiritually as she has turned into a killing machine. The only true way to describe it is cold-blooded. Her icy nature is revealed, once again, through the use of the color gray. Her eyes, or what is left of them, used silver, mirrored lenses. Just by her paratactic description, the reader syntactically knows her faults through her faulty vision. In addition to Molly, one other member of Case's team is flawed using the color gray. This is Armitage, or Corto. Armitage is merely a shell of a man created by an Artificial Intelligence. To indicate the instability of Armitage/Corto, Gibson shows Armitage in a gray business suit, which contrasts starkly to the image the reader sees of Corto's military days, where he would have worn a camouflaged uniform.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Background & The Evolution of the Internet

The Internet has undergone explosive growth since the first connections were established in 1969. This growth has necessitated an extremely large system scale-up that has required new developments in the technology of information transfer. These new developments allow simplified solutions to the problem of how to reliably get information from point A to point B. Unfortunately, the rapid pace of the required technological advancement has not allowed for optimal solutions to the scale-up problem.Rather, these solutions appear to have been the most convenient and practical at the time. Thus, the information transfer technology of today’s internet does not guarantee the ‘best path’ for data transmission. The definition of the best path may mean the most cost effective or the fastest path or some path based on optimization of multiple protocols, but the current technology used in the internet cannot guarantee that the best path for data transmission will be chosen. The result is a reduction in economic and system resource efficiency. The Evolution of the InternetThe Internet has become integrated into the economic, technological and security infrastructure of virtually every country in the world. However, the internet had quite a humble beginning. It was originally designed as a back-up military communications network (MILNET) and as a university research communications network (National Science Foundation Network, NFSNET / Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, ARPANET). The original technology developed for these limited systems was not designed for the massive scale-up that has occurred since inception.Moreover, the original design of the internet system was based on the sharing of resources. The recent applications of the internet for commerce and proprietary information transfer processes make resource sharing an undesirable aspect. A more recent development is resource usage based on policies limiting what part of the internet can use a specific service or data transmission line. An Introduction to Networks and Routing What is a network? A network is a group of computers linked together by transmission lines that allow communication between the computers.Some of these computers are the equipment used by people on their desktop. Other computers in the network are computers that are designed only to direct traffic on the network or between different networks. Computer scientists often think of networks as large graphs with lines used to connect dots. The dots are called nodes and correspond to computers and the lines correspond to the transmission lines that connect the computers. The Internet is a giant network of smaller networks, called autonomous systems, that allows computers to be connected around the globe.What is routing? The process of transmitting information from a source computer to a destination computer is called routing. The way this is done can greatly effect how quickly the information is transmitte d between the two computers. What is a router? A router is a computer with more than one connection to the rest of the network that is programmed to choose which transmission lines to send information. Some routers or designed to route information between networks, as on the Internet, while other routers work to route information between computers on the same network.How do routers route? In order for routers to choose the best route (or path) from the source computer to the destination computer, it is necessary that the routers communicate with each other about what computers and networks they are connected to and the routes that can be used to reach these computers and networks. Often these routes must go through other routers. What are advertisements? Advertisements are the messages sent between routers to communicate information about routes to reach each destination. What is convergence?Convergence occurs on the network or internet when all the routers know all the routes to al l the destinations. The time required for all the routers to agree on the state of the network, the network topology, is known as the convergence time. When convergence does not occur, then data can be transmitted to a router which does not know how to get to a destination and this data is then lost. This is called a black hole. It is also possible that the data can be passed around a set of routers continuously without getting to the destination. This is called a routing loop. What is a data packet?When a large message is being transmitted, the message will probably be broken up into smaller messages called data packets, and these data packets may not all be sent by the same path across the Internet, although they will hopefully all reach the same destination What is a metric? A routing metric is a measure associated with a particular path between a source and a destination used by the router to decide what path is the best path. Typical metrics used by routing algorithms include p ath length, bandwidth, load, reliability, delay (or latency) and communication cost.Path length is a geometric measure of how long the transmission lines are. Bandwidth is used to describe the available transmission rate (bps) of a given section the possible transmission path. The load is the data packet transmission per unit time. The reliability of a data transmission path is essentially the number of errors per unit time. The delay in data transmission along a certain path is due to a combination of the metrics that have already been discussed, including geometric length of the transmission lines, bandwidth, and data traffic congestion.The communication cost is essentially the commercial cost of data transmission along a certain transmission line. What is a router protocol? A router protocol is the way the router is programmed to choose the best path for data transmission and communicate with other routers. This algorithm will consider path metrics associated with each path in a way defined by the by the manager of each AS. What is an internet address? In order for routers to identify the destination of a data transmission, every destination must have an address.The internet protocol (IP) method of addressing destinations uses a series of digits separated by dots. An example of an Internet address is 227. 130. 107. 5. Each of the 4 numbers separated by a dot has a value between 0 and 255. This range of values is set from the amount of computer memory designated for addressing at the beginning of the internet. The internet addressing scheme is similar to a scheme for international telephone calls. There is a ‘country code’ which is a fixed number for each country, and then there are other numbers which change on the phone number to refer to specific locations within the country.The numbers on the IP address for a network on the internet correspond to what would be the country code on an international phone number are referred to as ‘prefix ’. The other numbers on the IP address change to refer to individual computers on that particular network. A ‘netmask’ can also be used to specify which numbers on the IP address for a given network are fixed and which ones can be changed. A netmask is a series on ones and zeroes that can be put over the IP address. The part of the IP address under the ones is fixed as a network address.The part of the IP address under the zeros can be changed to indicate specific computers on the network. What is a Domain Name System (DNS), the domain name and the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)? The DNS is a combination of computer hardware and software that can rapidly match the text specification of an IP address, like www. helpmegetoutofthis. com, to an IP address. The part, helpmegetoutofthis. com, is called the domain name. The whole text, www. helpmegetoutofthis. com, is called the Uniform Resource Locator (URL).When you send an e-mail or use the Internet, you use the doma in name and the URL to locate specific sites. This allows people to type in the text name, or domain name, of an internet site into the Netscape browser instead of trying to remember the numerical IP address. The DNS automatically matches the text name to the IP address for the user when the transmission request is submitted. What are servers and clients? All of the computers on the Internet are classified as either servers or clients. The computers that provide services to other computers are called servers.The computers that connect to servers to use the services are called clients. Examples of servers are Web servers, e-mail servers, DNS servers and FTP servers. The computers used at the desktop are generally clients. How the internet works. Although the details of routing and software are complex, the operation of the internet from the users’ perspective is fairly straight forward. As an example of what happens when the Internet is used, consider that you type the URL www . helpmegetoutofthis. com into the Netscape browser.The browser contacts a DNS server to get the IP address. A DNS server would start its search for an IP address. If it finds the IP address for the site, then it returns the IP address to the browser, which then contacts the server for www. helpmegetoutofthis. com, which then transmits the web page to your computer and browser so you can view it. The user is not aware that of the operation of an infrastructure of routers and transmission lines behind this action of retrieving a web page and transmitting the data from one computer to another.The infrastructure of the internet can be seen as a massive array of data relay nodes (routers) interconnected by data transmission lines, where each node can service multiple transmission lines. In the general case where information must be sent across several nodes before being received, there will be many possible pathways over which this transmission might occur. The routers serve to find a p ath for the data transmission to occur. The routing of a file or data packets of a file is either be done by the technique of source routing or the technique of destination routing.In source routing, the path the data transmission will follow id specified at the source of the transmission, while destination routing is controlled by the routers along the path. In the modern internet, almost all routing is done by destination routing because of security issues associated with source routing. Thus, the routers must be programmed with protocols that allow a reasonable, perhaps optimum, path choice for each data packet. For the routers to choose an optimum path also requires that the interconnected routers communicate information concerning local transmission line metrics.Router communication is thus itself a massive information transfer process, given that there is more than 100,000 networks and millions of hosts on the Internet. When viewing the enormity of the problem, it is perhaps e asier to understand why engineers have accepted a sub-optimal solution to the problem of efficiency in data transfer on the Internet. When initially confronting a problem, the practical engineering approach is to simplify the problem to the point where a working solution can be obtained and then refine that solution once the system is functional.Some of the simplifying assumptions used by engineers for the current internet data transmission system include 1) A transmission line is never over capacity and is always available as a path choice. 2) The performance of the router and transmission line does not depend on the amount of traffic. These two assumptions do simplify the problem of path choice considerably because now all the transmission lines and nodes may be considered equal in capacity and performance completely independent of traffic. As such, it is a much simpler optimization problem consisting of finding the route with the shortest path length.To simplify the problem even further, another assumption is made: 3) Consider that an â€Å"Autonomous System† (AS), is a small internet inside the Internet. An AS is generally considered to be a sub-network of an Internet with a common administrative authority and is regulated by a specific set of administrative guidelines. It is assumed that every AS is the same and provides the same performance. The problem of Internet routing can now be broken down into the simpler problem of selecting optimum paths inside the AS and then considering the optimum paths between the AS.Since there are ‘only’ around 15,000 active AS’s on the Internet, the overall problem is reduced to finding the best route over 15,000 AS nodes, and then the much simpler problem of finding the best route through each AS. There is an important (to this thesis) set of protocols which control the exchange of routing information between the AS’s. The sort of routers in an AS which communicates with the rest of the internet and other AS’s are called border routers. Border routers are controlled by a set of programming instructions known as Border Gateway Protocol, BGP.A more detailed discussion of computer networking principals and the Internet facts can be found in e. g. [7]. An Introduction to Router Protocols. Routers are computers connected to multiple networks and programmed to control the data transmission between the networks. Usually, there are multiple paths that are possible for transmission of data between two points on the Internet. The routers involved in the transmission between two points can be programmed to choose the ‘best path’ based on some metric. The ‘protocols’ used to determine the path for data transmission are routing algorithms.Typical metrics used by routing algorithms include path length, bandwidth, load, reliability, delay (or latency) and communication cost. Path length. Path length is a geometric measure of how long the transmiss ion lines are. The routers can be programmed to assign weights to each transmission line proportional to the length of the line or each network node. The path length is then the sum of the weights of the nodes, lines or lines plus nodes along the possible transmission path. Bandwidth. Bandwidth is used to describe the available transmission rate (bps) of a given section the possible transmission path.An open 64 kbps line would not generally be chosen as the pathway for data transmission if an open 10 Mbps Ethernet link is also open, assuming everything else is equal. However, sometimes the higher bandwidth path is very busy and the time required for transmission on a busy, high bandwidth line is actually longer than on a path with a lower bandwidth. Load. This data packet transmission per unit time or the percent of CPU utilization of a router on a given path is referred to as the load on this path. Reliability.The reliability of a data transmission path can be quantitatively descri bed as the bit error rate and results in the assignment of numeric reliability metrics for the possible data transmission pathways. Delay. The delay in data transmission along a certain path is due to a combination of the metrics that have already been discussed, including geometric length of the transmission lines, bandwidth, and data traffic congestion. Because of the hybrid nature of the communications delay metric, it is commonly used in routing algorithms. Communication Cost.In some cases, the commercial cost of data transmission may be more important the time cost. Commercial organisations often prefer to transmit data over low capacity lines which they own as opposed to using public, high capacity lines that have usage charges. The routing algorithms do not have to use just one metric to determine the optimum route; rather it is possible to choose the optimum route based on multiple metrics. In order for the optimum path to be chosen by the routers between the data source and the data destination, the routers must communicate information about the relevant metrics with other routers.This nature of this communication process is also defined by the routing algorithm and the transmission time is linked to the time required for the routers to have the necessary information about the states of the surrounding routers. The time required for all the routers to agree on the state of the network, the network topology, is known as the convergence time and when all routers are aware of the network topology, the network is said to have converged. Some of the common routing algorithm types can indeed affect the convergence of the network.Some of the different algorithms characteristics that must be chosen when designing are static or dynamic routing, single path or multi-path routing and link state or distance vector routing. Static Routing. Static routing is done by use of a static list of attributes describing the network topology at the initiation of the network. This list, called a routing table, is used by the routers to decide the optimum routes for each type of data transmission and can only be changed manually. Therefore, if anything changes in the network, such as a cable breaking or a router crashing, the viability of the network is likely to be compromised.The advantage is that there is no communication required between routers, thus the network is always converged. Dynamic Routing. In contrast to static routing, dynamic routing continually updates the routing tables according to changes that might occur in the network topology. This type of real time information processing allows the network to adjust to variations in data traffic and component reliability, but does require communication between the routers and thus there is a convergence time cost associated with this solution.Single Path vs Multi-path Routing. Single path and muli-path routing are accurate descriptive terms regarding the use of either a single line to send multip le packets of data from a given source to a given destination as opposed to using multiple paths to send all the data packets from the source to the destination. Multiple path algorithms achieve a much higher transmission rate because of a more efficient utilization of available resources. Link State vs Dynamic Routing Protocols.Link-state algorithms are dynamic routing algorithms which require routers to send routing table information to all the routers in the network, but only that information which describes its own operational state. Distance-vector algorithms, however, require each router to send the whole of its router table, but only to the neighbouring routers. Because the link-state algorithms require small amounts of information to be sent to a large number of routers and the distance vector algorithm requires large amounts of information sent to a small number of routers, the link state algorithm will converge faster.However, link state algorithms require more system reso urces (CPU time and memory). There is a new type of algorithm developed by CISCO which is a hybrid of the link-state algorithm and the distance vector algorithm [8].. This proprietary algorithm converges faster than the typical distance-vector algorithm but provides more information to the routers than the typical link-state algorithm. This is because the routers are allowed to actively query one another to obtain the necessary information missing from the partial tables communicated by the link-state algorithms.At the same time, this hybrid algorithm avoids communication of any superfluous information exhibited in the router communications of the full tables associated with distance-vector algorithm. Switching. The distance vector, link state or hybrid algorithms all have the same purpose, to insure that all of the routers have an updated table that gives information on all the data transmission paths to a specific destination. Each of these protocols requires that when data is tra nsmitted from a source to a destination, the routers have the ability to ‘switch’ the address on the data transmission.When a router receives a data packet from a source with the destination address, it examines the address of the destination. If the router has a path to that destination in the routing table, then the router determines the address of the next router the data packet will ‘hop’ to and changes the physical address of packet to that of the next hop, and then transmits the packet. This process of physical address change is called ‘switching’. It will be repeated at each hop until the packet reaches the final destination.Although the physical address for the forwarding transmission of the data packet changes as the packet moves across the Internet, the final destination address remains associated with the packet and is a constant. The internet is divided up into hierarchical groups that are useful in the description of the switching process. At the bottom of this hierarchy are network devices without the capability to switch and forward packets between sub-networks, where an AS is a sub-network.These network devices are called end systems (ESs), because if a packet is transmitted there, it cannot be forwarded and has come to the end. At the top of the hierarchy are the network devices that can switch physical addresses are called intermediate systems (ISs). An IS which can only forward packets within a sub-network are referred to as intra-domain ISs while those which communicate either within or between sub-networks are called intra-domain ISs. Details of Routing Algorithms Link State AlgorithmsIn a link state algorithm, every router in the network is notified of a topology change at the same time. This avoids some of the problems associated with the nearest neighbour update propagation that occurs in the distance vector algorithms. The ‘Open Shortest Path First’ (OSPF) protocol uses a graph topolo gy algorithm like Dijkstra’s Algorithm to determine the best path for data transmission between a given data source and a data destination. The metric used for route optimisation is specific to the manual configuration of the router.However, the default metric is the speed of the interface. The OSPF uses a two level, hierarchical network classification. The lower level of hierarchy is groups of routers called areas. All the routers in an area have full knowledge of all the other routers in the area, but reduced knowledge of routers in a different area. The different areas organized within the OSPF algorithm are connected by border routers, which have full knowledge of multiple areas. The upper level of the hierarchy is the backbone network, to which all areas must be connected.That is, all data traffic going from one area to another must pass through the backbone routers. Distance Vector Algorithms In order for data to be transmitted from a source to a destination on the Inte rnet, the destination must be identified using some mechanism. That is, each possible destination for data transmission must be described with an address. The scheme currently used to address the internet space is the Internet Protocol (IP) version 4. The IP version 4 uses an address length limited by 32 bits. An example of an Internet address is 227. 130. 107.5 with the corresponding bit vector 11100011 10000010 01101011 00000101. An initial difficulty in managing the available address space was the implementation of a class structure, where large blocks of internet address space was reserved for organisations such as universities, leaving commercial applications with limited address space. Routing of data transmission in this address environment was referred to as class-full routing. To alleviate this problem of limited address space, the internet community has slowly evolved to a classless structure, with classless routing.In distance vector protocols, each router sends adjacent routers information about known paths to specific addresses. The neighbouring routers are sent information giving a distance metric of each one from a destination address. The distance metric could be the number of routers which must be used to reach the destination address, known as the ‘hop count’, or it could be the actual transmission distance in the network. Although this information is advertised only to the adjacent routers, these routers will then communicate the information with their neighbouring routers, and so on, until the entire network has the same information.This information is then used to build the routing table which associates the distance metric with a destination address. The distance vector protocol is implemented when a router receives a packet, notes the destination, determines the path with the shortest distance to the destination and then forwards the packet to the next router along the shortest distance path. One of the first distance vector protocols implemented on the Internet was the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). RIP uses the distance metric of hop count to determine the shortest distance to the destination address.It also implements several protocols to avoid having data packets pass through the same router more than once (router loops). The path vector protocol is a distance vector protocol that includes information on the routes over which the routing updates have been transmitted. It is this information on path structure which is used to avoid routing loops. Path Vector Protocols are also somewhat more sophisticated than RIP because an attempt is made to ‘weight’ each path based on a locally defined criteria that may not simply reflect the highest quality of service, but rather the highest profit for an ISP.The implementation of these types of router algorithms may be different in different parts of the Internet. When the algorithms are implemented inside an autonomous system, they are called Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP). Because the different autonomous systems that make up the Internet are independent from one another, the type of routing algorithm used within the autonomous systems can also be independent of one another.That is, the managers of each autonomous system are free to choose the type of algorithm which best suits their particular network, whether it is static or dynamic link-state or dynamic distance-vector. When the algorithms are implemented to control data transmission between autonomous systems, they are referred to as Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP). The EGP connect all autonomous systems together to form the Internet and thus all EGP should use the same algorithm.The specific algorithm currently used as the EGP on the Internet is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which is a type of distance vector algorithm called a path vector algorithm [9]. A path vector algorithm uses information about the final destination of the data transmission in additio n to the attributes of the neighbouring links. It should be noted that the BGP algorithm can also be used as a router protocol within an autonomous system and is called an interior BGP (IBGP) in that instance. This necessitates calling the BGP an EBGP when it is implemented as an EGP.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Kohlberg s Theory Of Moral Development And Fowler s...

â€Å"Socialization is so basic to human development that we sometimes overlook its importance.† (Macionis, Pg. 84) Both Lawrence Kohlberg and James Fowler developed theories on how people develop in stages. Both Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development and Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development contain 6 stages that people are believed to go through as they develop. Kohlberg’s theory is related to how people develop a sense of what is right and wrong. It was influenced by the work of Jean Piaget, on moral reasoning. He classifies the stages into three levels each containing two sublevels. The first level is called the preconventional level of moral development. Children in this level experience the world in the terms of pain or pleasure. Something considered right in this stage would be what feels good to the child. The next level would be the conventional level. This occurs in the teen years where children start to think of right or wrong in terms of what pleases their parents or follows cultural norms. Children at this stage are also learning to assess intention when determining if a situation is right or wrong. â€Å"For example, they understand that stealing food to feed one’s hungry children is not the same as stealing an iPod to sell for pocket change.† (Macionis, Pg. 90) The final stage is the postconventional level. People being to consider abstract ethical principle and not just society’s norms. Kohlberg used stories of moral dilemmas to study the stages of development. 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Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Woman Of A Bride - 1637 Words

In addition, young females who are going to get married, are required to meet certain expectations in order to determine if the female is able to become a bride in South Indian culture. Thus, they are confined, unfit in other people s’ eyes, to be allowed to discover who they want to be. Resultantly, females feel as if they are slowly being strangled from their oppressing culture, eventually leading them to develop certain perspectives. With vast numbers of families so focussed on following their cultural rules, child marriages occur quite often where the male spouses are much older than the brides. As a result, these innocent adolescent girls are frightened as they are not given any sort of choice when it comes to deciding their own future and are heavily silenced if they ever speak their minds. Rather, it is more effective that the elders choose the â€Å"perfect† groom because the elderly are often associated with wisdom. For example, it is quite apparent that a fem ale’s life is controlled for every big milestone in her life with marriage being a key event that the bride herself has no say in. Appropriately, arranged marriages are a traditional way of living (â€Å"India†) and is something that must be arranged by the groom and bride’s parents (â€Å"India†) to ensure that the marriage will be prosperous in later years. 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In most Nigerian cultures, the man usually pays the dowry or bride-price andRead MoreFeelings of Oppression in Blood Wedding by Frederico Garcia Larco1178 Words   |  5 Pagescertain disposition towards nature in his thoughts and actions. This later becomes a major basis for developments in the plot of the play, when the Bride and Leonardo act on their true feelings and decide to elope. Thus nature is not only a setting, but also a major theme that acts a s a contrast to the urban setting that is filled with oppression. The Bride is set to marry the Bridegroom; however it is apparent in the play that her true desires lie with Leonardo. Set against a rigid and suppressiveRead MoreBride Price In Uganda.A Common Custom In Uganda Requires1296 Words   |  6 Pages Bride Price in Uganda A common custom in Uganda requires a man to pay his wife’s family in livestock and land to show that he is worthy of her. This custom is known as bride price. Though an ongoing practice, bride price has been ruled as a human rights violation because women are being treated as objects rather than people. Bride price should be discontinued because it is linked to abusive relationships and is inhumane. There is aRead MoreThe Trailer For Kill Bill1552 Words   |  7 Pagescharacter known as The Bride (Uma Thurman), is a former assassin whose former lover, Bill (David Carradine) attempted to kill her on her wedding day. After waking up from a coma, The Bride begins to tell her story about how she was attacked by the Deadly Viper Assassination Squad, which she was once a part of, while pregnant. The trailer begins with the click sound of a revolver s hammer being pulled back, and then firing. The camera is then positioned behind The Bride s butt, as she begins toRead MoreCulture Comparisons Between the !Kung Culture and the Indian Culture954 Words   |  4 Pagesweren’t related to each other. The !Kung people didn’t like to marry or arrange a marriage with other blood related family members even with distant cousins and if a person shared the same surname as one of the family members or even a child if the woman is older, they are forbidden to marry her. The Indian cul ture on the other hand had 36 different Araks or clans with a name for each one which a member from that particular clan used as their surname. Parents were forbidden to marry their childrenRead MoreEssay about Immigration in the US1493 Words   |  6 Pageschildren are raised in a better county.† (Bell 1). For decades, beautiful Russian and Asian women have been seen in catalogs as mail-order brides. Although the mail order bride industry promises American men a beautiful, obedient, foreign wife, it fails to mention the negative atmosphere included within these situations. Mail order brides should be banned in the United States in order to reduce the increase of domestic violence amongst women (Chittenden 5), the testing of aRead MoreEssay On Rites Of Passage1505 Words   |  7 Pagesof the â€Å"vivaha†. This occurs during the marriage ceremony of one s life where the bride and groom tie a piece of their clothing together and walk around the sacred fire seven times, where each round is symbolic as it holds a lifetime vow (Holme and Bowker 1994, 82). I have witnessed this at every Hindu wedding I have attended and this experience has been extremely significant and meaningful as it marks the bride and groom’s transition into their new of stage of life. This rite of passage is an indicationRead MoreEssay about Picture Bride1651 Words   |  7 PagesPicture Bride Picture Bride, released in 1995 and directed by Kayo Hatta, tells the story of many women living in Japan who were chosen to be brides by Japanese farm laborers living in Hawaii. The choice of the bride was based on their pictures. In this movie, Riyo wanted to leave Japan because her parents were killed by tuberculosis. She had heard great things about the paradise in Hawaii, and she agreed to be a picture bride. Riyo’s new husband was Matsuji, and based on his picture he seemed

Friday, December 20, 2019

Diabetes And The Prevalence Of Diabetes Essay - 930 Words

In 2008/09 close to 2.4 million Canadians were with diabetes (Type I and Type II) with 20% of diabetes cases remaining undiagnosed (Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), 2011a). The prevalence of diabetes in Canada is higher amongst males when compared to females (PHAC, 2011a). Table 1 indicates that a higher number of men experience years life lost (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) when compared to women (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), 2013). Interestingly, the mortality rate as a result of diabetes is slightly lower amongst males (IHME, 2013). In Canada, diabetes is not typically reported as the cause of death in vital statistics data, underestimating the association between diabetes and mortality (PHAC, 2011b). However, diabetes complications are associated with premature death and reduced quality of life (Katzmarzyk, Gledhill, Shephard, 2000). Complications associated with diabetes include: heart disease, ocular disease, kidney failure, nerve problems, lower extremity complications (amputations), gestational diabetes, anxiety, and depression (Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA), 2015). Family history, pre-diabetes, aging, obesity, history of diabetes related to pregnancy, and physical inactivity are risk factors associated with diabetes (CDA, 2015). Table 1. 2010 Estimates of Mortality rates, YLL rates, YLD rates, and DALY rates as a result of Diabetes in Canada (number of individuals).Show MoreRelatedA Brief Note On Diabetes And Prevalence Of Diabetes Essay910 Words   |  4 PagesPrediabetes Prediabetes is described as having a fasting blood glucose level higher than normal, but not elevated to the level of the classification of diabetes (CDC, 2014; CDC 2015) Normal blood glucose level is considered to be less than 100 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter), and diabetes is diagnosed when the blood glucose level rises above 126 mg/dL. Prediabetes falls in between at a level 100-125 mg/dL. Individuals with prediabetes are at a higher risk of heart disease and other complicationsRead MoreA Brief Note On Diabetes And Prevalence Of Diabetes1376 Words   |  6 PagesPrediabetes Prediabetes is described as having a fasting blood glucose level higher than normal, but not elevated to the level of the classification of diabetes (CDC, 2014; CDC 2015) Normal blood glucose level is considered to be less than 100 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter), and diabetes is diagnosed when the blood glucose level rises above 126 mg/dL. Prediabetes falls in between at a level 100-125 mg/dL. Individuals with prediabetes are at a higher risk of heart disease and other complicationsRead MorePrevalence of Diabetes in USA1223 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Diabetes in US Diabetes in US Introduction Diabetes mellitus, or simply termed as diabetes, is one of the most common chronic diseases with a high prevalence round the globe. People who are diabetic suffer with a high rate of blood sugar due to which they are abstained from such several eatables which have a high or low quantity of glucose in them. There are two main causes for such a situation; one is when the pancreas becomes unable to produce a hormone named Insulin, which is responsible toRead MoreThe Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes1325 Words   |  6 PagesGestational diabetes is a glucose intolerance that develops during pregnancy. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are important because gestational diabetes can cause serious maternal and fetal complications. Diet and exercise are the first line treatment options of gestational diabetes, while insulin therapy is the first line medical treatment option. Nurses’ play an important role in education and support of gestational diabetes because they provide da y-to-day care for their patients. In thisRead MoreThe Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus2021 Words   |  9 PagesData analyst. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose which leads serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. There are three types of diabetes. They are Type-I(T1DM), Type- 2(T2DM), Gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes represents 90 percent of diabetes cases in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is ranked as the 7th country world widely estimated to have the highest numbers of people with diabetes in 2000 and 2030Read MoreThe Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes1223 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to the American Diabetes Association, the  prevalence  of gestational diabetes is as high as 9.2% in pregnant women due to obesity or being overweight. Not only can it be harmful to the mother, but it can also be harmful to her baby. Gestational diabetes can increase the chances of pregnant w omen delivering a baby that weighs more than 9 pounds. Having gestational diabetes can also increase the mother’s chance for needing a cesarean section delivery. Some other risk factors that the motherRead MorePreventing The Prevalence Of Diabetes1758 Words   |  8 Pagesoutcome of indicated interventions. In the community assessment, diabetes was noted to be a major problem in the Irvington community. It is only adequate to identify suitable interventions that can help curtail this ailment amongst the residents of Irvington, New Jersey. As identified during the community assessment of Irvington Township, several aspects of the community and environmental risks relating to the high incidence of diabetes amongst this population were recognized. During the course of thisRead MoreThe Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus1847 Words   |  8 Pages The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, type 2 (DM II) is grossly affecting people worldwide. 24 million individuals in the United States w ere diagnosed with DM II in 2011 (Hunt, C. W., Grant, J. S., Appel, S. J., 2011). 109.6 million DM II cases were reported in China in 2015, with an expected 36% increase by 2040 (Browning, C., Chapman, A., Yang, H., Liu, S., Zhang, T., Enticott, J. C., Thomas, S. A., 2016). The incidence of DM II is also expected to increase by 190% in Omani people over theRead MoreObesity : The Prevalence Of Diabetes1877 Words   |  8 PagesThe prevalence of diabetes in America continues to grow. Information gathered from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) acknowledge that in the United States, one out of every eleven people has been diagnosed with diabetes and that one out of every four people are diabetic but not aware of it. Research has also shown that the medical costs and lost wages for those who have been diagnosed with diabetes is greater than two hundred billion dollars and that the mortality rate for diabeticsRead MoreWomen s Prevalence Of Diabetes1487 Words   |  6 PagesBhattacharyya, Dyck, Hayward, and Toth (2013), â€Å"National survey data have consistently shown that the national age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes is 3 to 5 times higher in First Nations than in the general population† (Introduction section, para. 1). Gestational diabetes mellitus is just one of the many types of diabetes Aboriginal people are faced with. It is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy; when your body is unable to produce an adequate amount of insulin to cope with fluctuating

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Variance Analysis and Flexible Budget

Question: Discuss about the Variance Analysis and Flexible Budget. Answer: Introduction The increased competition has forced the organizations to put in extra efforts to control the cost and improve the financial performance of the business (Berger, 2011). In the context of this, the report presented here deals with the analysis of the financial performance of Wildwood Creations Ltd for the financial year 2015-16. Comparing the budgeted figures against the actual, an extensive analysis has been performed to find out the variances and the reasons for such variances. Further, the report also covers discussion on the flexible budget being prepared for the company for the financial year 2015-16. Budget Vs Actual and Variance Analysis The company planned to operate at the capacity of 17,060 hours for the financial year 2015-16. At this capacity level, the planned revenues of the company were $947,800 with the expectations of earning $19,191 as net profit after meeting all the costs (appendix-1). However, when the actual financial performance was compared with the budgeted, it was found that the company was short by $2,917 in achieving the profits. The variance analysis was conducted to find out the reasons for the differences in the budgeted and actual profit. The variance report indicates that the revenues of the company increased by $55,390 but despite that the net profit reduced by $2,917 (appendix-2). The reduction in profit was mainly due to increase in the costs such as salaries for major repair services, material for new tables, advertisement, and office rent. Among these the biggest variance was observed to be in the salaries for major repair services, which were found to be over spent by $48,552 (Appendix-2). The actual hours worked for the financial year 2015-16 were 19,543, which exceed to the budgeted hours by 2,483 hours. The salaries for major repairs were payable on per hour basis, which implies that these were variable. Due to of being variable nature, the excess actual hours increased the spending on salaries for major repairs substantially in the financial year 2015-16. Flexible Budget The flexible budget for Wildwood Creations Ltd for the financial year 2015-16 has been shown in appendix-3 (Crosson Needles, 2010). The flexible budget depicts that the revenues of the company should have been $1,149,199.42 at the actual capacity utilization. Although, the actual revenues are greater than the budgeted figures, but, since the actual hours worked have increased to 19,543, the revenues of the company should have increased to $1,149,199.42. Further, the total variable cost was budgeted at $902,016, which, having regard to the increment in the capacity level should have been 1,033,300.04. However, since the fixed costs remain the same, therefore, the fixed costs do not change in the flexible budget (Crosson Needles, 2010). The total profit as per flexible budget is $34,699.80, which is greater than the budgeted profit of $19,191. Conclusion From the analysis, it could be articulated that the companys financial performance has been poor in the financial year 2015-16. At the actual level of capacity utilization, the company should have achieved a profit of $34,699.38 while the company earned only $16,274. In order strengthens the financial performance; the company should lower down the salary cost incurred on major repairs. For this purpose, the company can consider switching from contract base work to permanent salaried employees who will be paid on a monthly basis. References Berger, A. (2011). Standard costing, variance analysis and decision-making. GRIN Verlag. Crosson, S.V. Needles, B.E. (2010). Managerial accounting. Cengage Learning.